The latest world population survey of the National Institute of Demographic Studies (INED), published Wednesday October 2, reserves some surprises. Thus, we learn that nearly one inhabitant of the globe in three will live in Africa at the end of the century or that we will be nearly 11 billion on the planet by 2100.
The INED study also looks at gross national income (GNI) per country and per capita (2012 figures) for all the major regions of the world (classified geographically according to the practice of United Nations directories). All expressed in dollars and purchasing power parity (PPP). Data that sometimes goes against certain received ideas… Challenges.fr looks back on five of them.
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1. The inhabitants of southern Africa are richer than those of South America
If media attention is often focused on Brazil, Russia, India or China, we often forget that South Africa (the “s” in the acronym BRICS) is also continuing its march forward. Moreover, Brazil and South Africa have an almost similar gross national income per capita: 11,720 dollars in purchasing power parity for the first, against 11,190 for the second. A GNI very close to the world average (11,690 dollars per person).
But what we know much less is that the 61 million inhabitants of southern Africa have a higher per capita income than those of Latin America (401 million people in mid-2013). Their per capita GNI reaches 10,750 dollars, against 10,380 dollars for people living in South America.
2. France, country in the heart of Europe with the lowest per capita income
France is certainly still the second power on the European continent. But if the country has a gross national income of nearly 2.328 billion dollars (the 7th largest in the world), that does not mean that the French are drowning in money compared to their close neighbors.
On the contrary, if we focus on Western Europe as defined by INED (Germany, Austria, Benelux, Liechtenstein, Monaco and Switzerland), the French are those with the lowest income. With a per capita GNI of $ 36,460, they are behind Germany ($ 41,370), Austria ($ 43,220) and even Belgium ($ 39,260).
3. The inhabitants of Central America better off than those of East Asia
By 2015, Mexico’s hourly production costs will be lower than China’s, according to a report by the Boston Consulting Group. Which could make the country the new factory of the world. And yet, Mexicans already have a GNI per person much higher than that of the Chinese: 16,630 dollars on average against 9,210 dollars.
And, despite the phenomenal development of East Asia (with not only China but also South Korea), Central America has a higher standard of living. The region’s average GNI is $ 13,890 per capita, compared to $ 11,990 for East Asia.
4. The Swiss earn more than the Americans
No, Americans are not the richest in the world. Finally, when we relate their income to the size of their population. Residents of three large countries earn more than citizens of the United States: Qataris ($ 84,670 GNI per person), Norwegians ($ 64,030) and Swiss ($ 54,870). Americans are content with $ 50,610 gross national income per person.
5. Indians at the same level as the Congolese
India’s economic take-off is indisputable. India, with a purchasing power parity GNI of $ 4.902 billion, is the third country in the world on this criterion. For the majority of the local population, however, this is slow to translate into their daily lives. It must be said that the country is the second most populous in the world with 1.276 billion inhabitants. Result: the GNI per capita (3,840 dollars) barely exceeds that of the Congo (3,510 dollars).